試用期的職工能否享受醫療期?

2019/6/12 11:19:34

作者:喬蓓華

      喬法官:

      我今年初跳槽去了一家資產管理公司做行政工作,今年四月,我意外懷孕并伴隨先兆流產的癥狀,醫生要求我臥床靜養。為此,我向主管提出病假的申請,主管要求我辦好手續。公司的請假手續都是通過電腦OA系統辦理的,我因為是第一次請病假,雖然上傳了病假單,但忘了把病歷上傳。第二周我又通過電腦系統遞交了病假申請,這次資料齊全。但過了三天,主管突然打電話給我,要求我去公司辦理工作交接。因醫囑要我靜養,我就詢問能否通過電話、微信、郵件等辦理相關手續。哪知,一周后,公司就以我試用期不符合錄用條件為由發出解雇通知,他們稱公司規定,試用期內累計請假超過6.5天就可以解除合同,說我未按照制度規定履行請假手續屬于曠工,拒絕辦理交接手續屬于不服從工作安排。請問公司的這種做法合法嗎?

      讀者 小妮

      小妮:

      試用期是雙方當事人互相考察、互相適應的期限,其設置的初衷就是為了確保勞動合同目的的順利實現。為避免用人單位濫用試用期解除權,法律還規定,在試用期內經證實不符合錄用條件的,用人單位才可行使合同解除權。因此,用人單位在招聘員工時應當明確錄用條件,包括與招聘崗位相匹配的教育背景、工作經歷、個人技能以及需要達到的崗位要求,通過試用期對勞動者工作能力等進行綜合評判以確定其是否是那個“對的人”。用人單位為了保證生產效率要求應聘人員在試用期內不得無故缺勤,本無可厚非,但人難免生病,試用期的職工也無法避免。試用期員工能否享受醫療期待遇,對此存有爭議。一種意見認為,《勞動合同法》明確規定,勞動者處于醫療期的,用人單位不得依據《勞動合同法》第四十條及第四十一條的規定與其解除勞動合同,故該條醫療期內不得解雇的條款并不適用于第三十九條的試用期解雇情形。而另一種意見則認為,醫療期制度的設置就是為了平衡利益,給患病期間的勞動者以一定的幫助,試用期內的職工也不例外。

      筆者更傾向于第二種觀點。職工患病,尤其是需要病休一段時間,確實會給企業的正常生產經營帶來影響,但基于用人單位有相應的保障義務,加之醫療期根據勞動者工作年限的不同亦有一定限度區別,用人單位在此期間對勞動者應當予以照顧。對此,1989年勞動部在《關于合同制工人在試用期內患病醫療問題給寧波勞動局的復函》中就曾明確,合同制工人在試用期內患病或非因工負傷的可以享受醫療期待遇。你因懷孕導致先兆流產需病休,與普通的病休還有不同。按照《婦女權益保障法》的規定,任何單位不得因結婚、懷孕、產假、哺乳等情形,降低女職工工資,辭退女職工。你公司因你懷孕休病假而辭退你,顯然與上述法律規定相悖。你請病假已提前告知公司,手續雖有瑕疵,但并無證據證明你系故意不提交相關資料,故不屬于曠工。因身體狀況一時無法到單位辦理工作交接亦屬情有可原,公司直接將此認定為不服從工作安排過于苛刻。因此,公司與你解除勞動合同并不合法。

      (上海市第二中級人民法院民二庭副庭長,2017年獲評全國優秀法官)

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